The Egyptian civilization: Where and when did the Egyptians live?

The ancient Egyptian civilization developed along the Nile river in Egypt and lasted from 3600 BC to 332 BC. In this article, we will delve into the history of this civilization, exploring its geography, political structure, and way of life.

Geography of Ancient Egypt

The territory of the ancient Egyptians was surrounded by mountains to the east, the Mediterranean Sea to the north, and the desert to the west. This protected the civilization from potential enemies and made it easier for the Egyptians to communicate and trade with each other. The most prominent cities of ancient Egypt were Giza, Thebes, Memphis, and Lux.

Division of Ancient Egypt

The ancient Egyptian territory was divided into two parts: Lower Egypt, near the delta mouth of the Nile river in the north, and Upper Egypt in the south. At the beginning of the civilization, each part was ruled by a king known as a pharaoh.

The pharaoh of Lower Egypt wore a red crown, while the pharaoh of Upper Egypt wore a white crown. The unification of the two kingdoms occurred around 3000 BC, thanks to Pharaoh Narmer. The two crowns merged into one headdress worn by the pharaoh, symbolizing the unity of Upper and Lower Egypt.

The Role of the Nile River

The Nile River played a crucial role in the life of the ancient Egyptians. It made the land on both sides of the river fertile. It also facilitated the transportation of goods and people between different regions. The Egyptians used simple sailing boats to travel quickly from one region to another. They transported agricultural and handicraft products, making the Nile a vital part of their economy.

The Nile and the Seasons in Ancient Egypt

The Flooding Season:

From July to November, the Nile would flood due to heavy rains, leaving silt on the ground that made the soil fertile. However, floods sometimes destroyed fields and homes, leading the Egyptians to learn to build canals, levees, and dams to control the waters of the Nile.

The Sowing Season:

From November to March, the Egyptians would sow the fields and engage in hunting and fishing. During this time, the river was abundant with fish and birds, providing ample food for the civilization.

The Harvest Season:

From March to July, the Egyptians could harvest the crops they had sown, including cereals, legumes, vegetables, and fruit.


The ancient Egyptian civilization was a remarkable feat of human ingenuity, culture, and perseverance. The Nile River played a crucial role in shaping the lives of the ancient Egyptians, from their economy and agriculture to their way of life. Through the millennia, the Egyptians left us with a rich legacy of art, literature, and architecture. It continues to inspire and captivate people to this day.


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